VW Type 128 and 166 Schwimmwagen’s were swimming ,four-wheel drive off-roaders used by the German Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS during WWII. The Type 166 is the most numerous mass-produced amphibious car in history. Schwimmwagen simply means Floating / Swimming Car.
Volkswagen Schwimmwagens used the engine and mechanicals of the VW Type 86 and the Type 87 four-wheel drive ‘Kübel/Beetle’ Command Car. Erwin Komenda, Ferdinand Porsche’s first car body designer, was forced to develop an all-new unitized bodytub structure since the flat floorpan chassis of the existing VW vehicles was unsuited to smooth movement through water. Komenda patented his ideas for the swimming car at the German Patent office.
The earliest Type 128 prototype was based on the full-length Kübelwagen chassis. Pre-production units of the 128, fitted with custom welded bodytubs, demonstrated that this construction was too weak for tough off-roading, had insufficient torsional rigidity, and easily suffered hull-ruptures at the front cross-member, as well as in the wheel-wells. This was unacceptable for an amphibious vehicle. The large-scale production models (Type 166) were therefore made smaller.
VW Schwimmwagens were produced by the Volkswagen factory at Fallersleben / Wolfsburg and Porsche’s facilities in Stuttgart; with the bodies (or rather hulls) produced by Ambi Budd in Berlin. 15,584 Type 166 Schwimmwagen cars were produced from 1941 through 1944; 14,276 at Fallersleben and 1,308 by Porsche. Given these numbers, the VW 166 is the most mass-produced amphibious car in history.Only 163 are known by the Schwimmwagen Registry to remain today, and only 13 have survived without restoration work.
All Schwimmwagen were four wheel drive only on first gear and had ZF self-locking differentials on both front and rear axles. Just like the Kübelwagen, the Schwimmwagen had portal gear rear hubs that gave better ground clearance, while at the same time reducing drive-line torque stresses with their gear reduction at the wheels.
When crossing water a screw propeller could be lowered down from the rear deck engine cover. When in place a simple coupling provided drive straight from an extension of the engine’s crankshaft. This meant that screw propulsion was only available going forward. For reversing in the water there was the choice of using the standard equipment paddle or running the land drive in reverse, allowing the wheel-rotation to slowly take the vehicle back. The front wheels doubled up as rudders, so steering was done with the steering wheel both on land and on water.